What are the main questions answered in this project?

Online proctoring to take exams remotely holds big promises. Both in terms of technology, security and flexibility of the examination process as well as accessibility to education and certification. However, there are quite a number of issues that inhibit the realisation of these promises. The OP4RE project identifies these inhibitors and tries to answer to the challenges they pose in a practical, psychometric, legal, technical and empirical manner.


Can institutions of higher education, test providers and proctoring solution providers simply record and store a student’s video and data when making exams? Obviously not.

What EU-wide regulations concerning privacy apply in online testing situations and how can institutions and proctoring solution providers comply with these regulations.


How can secure and reliable exams be achieved? How does security compare to regular residential examination procedures? Does online proctoring need to be much more secure and reliable than residential exams? What kinds of insecurities can be identified and how can these be mitigated?


For what kinds of exams and target groups does online proctoring provide valid and worthwhile examination opportunities. How can online proctoring support access to higher education throughout the European higher education system.

Experience and Validity

How can we ensure that students are comfortable with the technology and procedures. How can we know that students do not perform better or worse when taking exams at home in comparison to taking exams in exam halls or testing centers.


What are best-practices and procedures with which it is more easy and accreditable to acknowledge credits acquired by other institutions for higher education and open and online course providers and certificates.